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Medical Dictionary - Letter: e



TermDefinitionPronunciation
EaerosolsA liquid or particulate solution dispensed as a mist.
earThe hearing and equilibrium system of the body. Sound vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the acoustic nerve to the central nervous system. The inner ear contains the vestibular organ that responsible for equilibrium.
earachePain in the ear.
EBLestimated blood loss
ebola virusA virus causing acute, often fatal, infections. Transmitted from animals to humans and from human to human.
ebstein anomalyA congenital heart defect characterized by third and fourth heart sounds and a systolic murmur best heard at the tricuspid position. The tricuspid valve is displaced downward and the right atrium is usually enlarged.
EBVEpstein-Barr virus
ec-outside, out
ecchymosisDiscolored skin due to subcutaneous bleeding larger than 1cm. Commonly called a bruise.ek″ĭ-mo´sis
eccrine glandsSimple sweat glands that secrete sweat directly onto the skin.
ECFextended care facility
ECGelectrocardiogram
echin/ospiny, prickly
ECHOechocardiography
echo-reflected sound
echocardiographyA noninvasive diagnostic procedure that uses ultrasound to study to structure and motions of the heart and blood flow.
echoencephalographyThe use of ultrasound waves to study brain structures. ek′ō·ensef′əlog′rəfē
echolaliaThe automatic and meaningless repetition of another person's spoken words.
eclampsiaA toxic disorder characterized by convulsions and possibly coma during or immediately after pregnancy
ECMOextracorporeal membrane oxygenation
eco-environment
ecotype A subspecies that is genetically adapted to a particular habitat.
ECTelectroconvulsive therapy
-ectasisdilation, stretching
ecto-out, outward
ectomorphA slender, lean body type.
-ectomyremoval, excision
ectopic beatsHeartbeat electrical impulses generated from cardiac locations other than the SA node.ek-top´ik
ectopic pregnancyWhen a fertilized egg implants outside of the uterus.ek-top´ik
ectr/ocongenital absence
ectropionA condition where the lower eyelid droops away from the eye and turns outwards.ek-tro´pe-on
eczemaInflammation of the skin. Multiple causes.ek´zĕ-mah
EDemergency department
ED (2)erectile dysfunction
EDDestimated date of delivery
edemaSwelling due to excess fluid in the body's tissues.ĕde´mah
-edemaswelling
EEGelectroencephalogram
EENTeye, ear, nose, and throat
EFejection fraction
efferent pathwaysThe route of nerve structures carrying impulses away from a nerve center toward a peripheral site.
effusionThe escape of fluid.
EGDesophagogastroduodenoscopy
EGFepidermal growth factor
eggA female reproductive cell prior to fertilization.
egoThe part of a person that is conscious and thinks. The self.
EIAexercise-induced asthma
eideticPertaining to the ability to accurately visualize events or objects from experience.
ejaculationThe sudden emission of semen from the male urethra.
ejection clickA sharp clicking sound heard during cardiac auscultation.
ejection fractionThe portion of the total ventricular filling volume that is ejected during a heart beat.
EKGelectrocardiogram
elasticityResistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
elationThe feeling of euphoria, excitement, joyfulness, satisfaction and optimism.
elbow jointA hinge joint connecting the forearm to the arm.
ele/ooil
electric impedanceThe measure of the opposition that a circuit presents to a current when a voltage is applied.
electro/oelectricity
electrocardiogramA recording of the electrical activity of the heart. Within each heartbeat, electrical waves travel through the heart. For a normally functioning heart, the P wave indicates atrial contraction, then after a short pause, the QRS complex indicates ventricular contraction and then a T wave marks the relaxation of the ventricles. EKGs are recorded on a chart paper, displayed on a monitor or digitally captured. e-lek″tro-kahr´de-o-gram″
electrocardiographyThe process of recording the electrical activity of the heart.
electrochemistryThe study of combined electrical and chemical activity and changes.
electrodeA conductor through which electric current enters or leaves a non-metallic medium.
electroencephalographyA test to measure the electrical activity of the brain.ilek′trō·ensef′əlog′rəfē
electrolysisDestruction by using a galvanic electric current.
electrolyteA substances that dissociates into two or more ions and can then conduct an electric current.
electrolytesMinerals in the blood and other body fluids that carry an electric charge.ē·lekˑ·trō·lītsˈ
electromyographyA test of the health of the muscles and the nerves that control the muscles.ē-lek'trō-mī-og'ră-fē
electronA stable elementary particle in orbit around an atom's nucleus.
electrophoresisThe movement of charged particles in an electric field toward an electric pole.
electrophysiologyThe study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
electroplatingCoating with a metal or alloy by electrolysis.
elementsEach of more than one hundred substances that cannot be chemically broken down into simpler substances and are primary constituents of matter.
elephantiasisA condition characterized by gross enlargement of an area of the body,
eliminationRemoval of waste products from the body.
ELISAenzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
elixelixir
elliptocytosisCondition of having an abnormal number of elliptical red cells in the blood.
elutriationThe removal, by means of a suitable solvent, of one material from another.
Ememmetropia
emaciationAbnormal thinness caused by disease or a lack of nutrition.
embalmingProcess of preserving a dead body to protect it from decay.
embolectomyAn emergency surgical removal of an obstructing clot or foreign material.
embolismA blood vessel blockage by a blood clot or other undissolved material in the bloodstream. em´bo-lizm
embryoAny organism in the earliest stages of development.
embryo-related to embryo
embryologyThe study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.
-emesisvomiting
emeticsPertaining to or causing vomiting.
EMGelectromyography
-emiacondition of the blood
emmetr/ocorrect measure
emmetropiaA state when rays are focused correctly on the retina of a relaxed eye.em″ĕ-tro´pe-ah
emotionAny state of arousal in response to external events or memories.
emphysemaA chronic lung disease characterized by decreased numbers of alveoli and eventual destruction of alveoli walls. Caused by genetic defects and smoking.em″fĭ-se´mah
empyemaPresence of pus in a hollow organ or body cavity. Abscess.
EMSemergency medical service
en-in, within
enanti/oopposed, opposite
enarthrosisA ball and socket joint.
encephal/obrain
encephalitisA inflammation of the brain. Symptoms include headache, fever, vomiting, stiff neck and lethargy.en-sef″ah-li´tis
encopresisThe loss of the ability to control bowel movements.
end-within, inner
endarterectomyA surgical procedure to remove the plaque material in the lining of an artery.en″dahr-ter-ek´to-me
endarterialRelating to the interior lining of the artery.ĕnd″ăr-tē′rē-ăl
endarteritisInflammation of the inner endothelial lining of an artery.
endemicPresent or usually prevalent in a population or geographical area at all times.
endo-within
endocardi/oendocardium (inner lining of the heart)
endocardialSituated or occurring within the heart.
endocarditisInflammation of the inner lining of the heart chamber and valves. Usually caused by bacterial infection.en'dō-kar-dī'tis
endocardiumThe innermost layer of the heart, consisting of endothelial cells. en'dō-kar'dē-ŭm
endocervicitisInflammation of the mucous lining of the uterine cervix.en″do-ser″vĭ-si´tis
endocrine systemThe system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system.
endocrinologyA subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the metabolism, physiology, and disorders of the endocrine system.
endodermThe inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.
endometri/oendometrium (mucous membrane lining the uterus)
endometriosisA painful, chronic disease where the tissue that normally grows inside the uterus grows outside it. May spread anywhere in the abdominal cavity.en″do-me″tre-o´sis
endometriumThe mucous membrane comprising the inner layer of the uterine wall.
endomorphA body type that is relatively soft and round.
endophyticPertaining to the tendency to grow inward
endorphinA natural substance produced in the brain that binds to opioid receptors, dulling pain perception.
endoscopeAn instrument for the visual examination of interior structures of the body.
endotheliomaA tumor arising from the endothelial lining of blood vessels.
endotheliumA layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels, lymph vessels and the serous cavities of the body.
endovascular proceduresWithin a blood vessel.
enemaA solution or compound that is introduced into the rectum with the purpose of cleansing the colon or for diagnostic procedures.
ENTear, nose, and throat
ent-within, inside
enter/osmall intestines
enteritisInflammation of any segment of the small intestine.en″tĕ-ri´tis
enterocolitisInflammation of the mucous membrane of both small and large intestines.
enterocytesColumnar cells of the small intestine responsible for the final digestion and absorption of nutrients, electrolytes and water.
enterostomyCreation of an artificial external opening or fistula in the intestines.
entropionThe eyelid is rolled inward toward the eye.en-tro´pe-on
enuresisInvoluntary discharge of urine after completed development of urinary control.en″u-re´sis
enzymeAny protein that acts as a catalyst,
EOMextraocular muscles
eoseosinophil
eosin/orose-colored
eosinophilsA type of white blood cell. A granulocyte often increased with allergies and/or parasite infections.ēˑ·ō·si·n·filzˈ
ependymaA thin membrane that lines the cerebral ventricles and the central canal of the spinal cord.
ephemeraPrinted matter of passing interest.
epi-above, on, following
epicardiumThe inner layer of the pericardium, covering the heart. ep″i-kahr´de-um
epicondylitisTennis elbow. Occurs from partial or complete tears of the tendons of the forearm, or from overuse, a strain.ep'i-kon-di-lī'tis
epidemicAn rapid, widespread outbreak of a contagious disease.
epidemiologyField of medicine concerned with the determination of causes, incidence, and characteristic behavior of disease outbreaks affecting human populations.
epidermisThe superficial avascular layers of the skin,
epididym/oepididymis (structure within the scrotum that stores sperm)
epididymisThe convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the testis.
epididymitisInflammation of the epididymis.ep″ĭ-did″ĭ-mi´tis
epiduralOn or over the dura mater.
epidural anesthesiaA regional anesthesia that blocks pain.ep'i-dūr'ăl an'es-thē'zē-ă
epiglott/oepiglottis (cartilage that prevents food from entering the trachea)
epiglottisCartilage that prevents food from entering the trachea. ep″ĭ-glot´is
epiglottitisInflammation of the epiglottis.
epilationRemoval of a hair by its roots.
epilepsyA general term for conditions with recurring seizures.ep´ĭ-lep″se
epimysiumThe fibrous connective tissue surrounding a skeletal muscle.
epinephrineA hormone secreted by the medulla of the adrenal glands. Commonly called adrenaline.ep″ĭ-nef´rin
epineuralOn a neural arch of a vertebra.
epineuriumThe sheath of a peripheral nerve.
epiphoraOverflow of tears due to obstruction of the lacrimal duct.
episcleraThe loose connective tissue between the sclera and the conjunctiva.
episcleritisAn inflammation of the sclera, causing redness of the eye.
episi/ovulva
episiotomyAn incision made in the perineum to widens the opening of the vagina during childbirth.ĕ-piz″e-ot´ah-me
epispadiasA birth defect due to malformation of the urethra.ep″ĭ-spa´de-as
epistaxisNose bleed. ep″ĭ-stak´sis
epitheli/oepithelium
epithelial cellsCells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers or masses.
epitheliumlayers of cells that line hollow organs and glands. It is also those cells that make up the outer surface of the bodyep″ĭ-the´le-um
epitopeAny site on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
EPOerythropoietin
eponymThe name of a disease, procedure or body structure that is based upon the name of the discoverer.ep´o-nim
epulisA swelling on the gum.
µEqmicroequivalent
equi-equal
EREmergency Room,
ERBFeffective renal blood flow
ERCPendoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
erectile dysfunctionThe consistent inability in the male to sustain an erection sufficient for sexual intercourse. Impotence.
erethism/oirritation
erg-work
ergo-work, energy
ergometryMeasuring the amount of work done by an organism.
ergonomicsDesign work that reduces stress and eliminates injuries associated with the overuse of muscles, bad posture and repeated tasks.er'gō-nom'iks
eructationTo belch.e″ruk-ta´shun
ERVexpiratory reserve volume
erysipelasAn acute infection of the skin characterized by fever, headache, vomiting, and purplish raised lesions.
erythemaRedness of the skin that results from capillary congestion.er″ĭ-the´mah
erythr/ored
erythrasmaA chronic bacterial infection of major folds of the skin.
erythroblastA nucleated immature red blood cell found in bone marrow.
erythrocyt/ored blood cell
erythrocytesCells that contains hemoglobin and that can transport oxygen to body tissues. Commonly called red blood cells.ē·rithˑ·rō·sīts
erythrodermaAn intense and usually widespread reddening of the skin.ĕ-rith″ro-der´mah
erythroidReddish color.
erythromelalgiaA rare peripheral arterial disorder occurring in middle aged patients characterized by severe burning pain, reddening, hyperalgesia and sweating of the extremities.
erythroplasiaDysplasia and erythema of the epithelium
escharA dry scab formed on the skin following a burn or cauterization of the skin
eschar/oscab
eso-inward
esophag/oesophagus
esophageal achalasiaFailure of the lower esophageal sphincter to relax, resulting in functional obstruction of the esophagus, and dysphagia.
esophageal varicesAbnormally dilated veins of the esophagus. High risk of spontaneous bleeding. Associated with alcohol abuse.ĕ-sof'ă-jē'ăl var'i-sēz
esophagitisInflammation of the esophagus.
esophagusThe muscular membranous passage between the pharynx and the stomach in the upper gastrointestinal tract.
esotropiaAn inward turning of one or both eyes.es″o-tro´pe-ah
ESRerythrocyte sedimentation rate
ESRDend-stage renal disease
ESTelectroshock therapy
esthes/onerve sensation, feeling
-esthesiasensation, feeling
estrogenHormones that are important for sexual and reproductive development in females.es´tro-jen
ethnologyCultural anthropology.
ethologyPertaining to the study of animal behavior.
eti/ocause
ETUemergency trauma unit
eu-normal, good
eukaryotaOne of the three domains of life (along with bacteria and archaea). Organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. Also called Eukarya.
euphoriaA strong feeling of happiness, confidence, or well-being.
eury-wide, broad
eustachian tubeA narrow canal extending from the middle ear to the pharynx.
euthanasiaThe practice of killing someone painlessly, to relieve suffering from an incurable illness. Mercy killing.
ex-out, away from
exanthemA widespread rash that is usually accompanied by symptoms that include fever, malaise and headache. eg-zan´them
exanthemaEruption on the skin occurring as a symptom of a disease
exciseTo cut out a tumor, tissue or organ.
excisionRemoval of tissue using a scalpel.re-sek´shun
excoriationAn abraded area where the skin is torn or worn off
exfoliationTo remove a layer of skin.
exfoliative dermatitisA widespread scaling of the skin, often with itching (pruritus), skin redness (erythroderma), and hair loss.eks-fō'lē-ă-tiv dĕr'mă-tī'tis
exhalationBreathing out.
exhumationRemoval of a dead body from the earth after burial.
exo-outside, outward
exocrine glandsGlands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.
exogenousOriginating from outside
exophthalmosA bulging eyeball, associated with hyperthyroidism.ek″sof-thal´mos
exoskeleton The exterior protective or supporting structure or shell of many animals.
exostosesAbnormal bony outgrowth from the surface of a bone
exotropia One or both of the eyes turn outward.ek″so-tro´pe-ah
extexterior
extensorAny muscle that extends a limb or other body part.
extirpationSurgical removal of a body part or tissue
extra-outside of, beyond
extractionSurgical removal of a body part.
eyeThe organ of vision.
eyebrowThe bony ridge extending over the eye and the row of hair located on it.
eyelashesThe hairs which project from the edges of the eyelids.
eyelidsEach of the upper and lower folds of skin which cover the eye when closed.