Return to Dictionary Page »

Medical Dictionary - Letter: g



TermDefinitionPronunciation
µgmicrogram
ggram
gaitManner or style of walking.
galact/omilk
galactorrheaInappropriate lactation.gah-lak″to-re´ah
galactoseOne of the two simple sugars in the protein, lactose, found in milk. The other sugar is glucose.
gallbladderA reservoir for bile located under the right lobe of the liver.
gallopA third heart sound that resembles the sound of a galloping horse.
gallstoneA hard mass that precipitates in the biliary tract, usually in the gallbladder.
gam-marriage, sexual union
gameteA mature sex cell.
ganglionA structure containing an aggregation of nerve cell bodies located in the peripheral nervous system.
ganglion cystSwelling or tumor on a joint or tendon sheath due to trauma.gang´gle-on
ganglion/oganglion
ganglioneuromaA benign neoplasm that usually arises from the sympathetic trunk in the mediastinum.
gangreneDeath and putrefaction of tissue usually due to a loss of blood supply.
garggargle
gastr/ostomach
gastralgiaPain in the stomach or abdomengas″tro-din´e-ah
gastrectomyExcision of part or all of the stomach.
gastricPertaining to the stomach.
gastric absorptionUptake of substances via the stomach.
gastritisThe painful inflammation of the stomach's lining.gas-trī'tis
gastroenteritisInflammation of the gastrointestinal tract.gas″tro-en″tĕ-ri´tis
gastroenterologyA subspecialty of medicine concerned with diseases of the digestive system and related structures including the esophagus, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.
gastrointestinal tractGenerally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the mouth to anus, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (liver; biliary tract; pancreas).
gastroparesisChronic delayed gastric emptying.
gastrostomyCreation of an artificial external opening into the stomach for nutritional support or gastrointestinal compression.gas-tros´tah-me
gavageForced feeding a patient especially through a tube passed into the stomach
GBgallbladder
GCgonorrhea
GDMgestational diabetes mellitus
ge/osoil
gel/oto freeze, congeal
gemell/otwins
gemin-double, twin
-genproducing, origin
gen/oto become, being born, producing
geneA unit of inheritance carrying a single trait occupying a certain location on a chromosome.
-genesisformation, development
geneticPertaining to reproduction or to birth or origin.
geni/ochin
-genicproducing, origin
genit/oreproduction
genitaliaThe male and female reproductive organs.jen″ĭ-tāl´e-ah
genocideThe deliberate annihilation of a national, ethnic, or religious group.
genomeThe complete set of genes in the chromosomes of each cell. The human genome contains an estimated 30,000 to 40,000 genes.
genomicsThe systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (genome) of organisms.
genotypeThe genetic constitution of the individual.
genuKnee.
genu varumAn outward slant of the thigh in which the knees are wide apart and the ankles close together.
ger/oold age
GERDgastroesophageal reflux disease
geriatricsThe branch of health care concerned with aging and diseases of the elderly.
germAny microorganism, particularly one that causes disease.
germinationThe early stages of the growth of seeds. The embryonic shoot and embryonic plant roots emerge.
germinomaA neoplasm of the germinal tissue of gonads, mediastinum, or pineal region.
gest/oto bear
gestaltA physical, mental or symbolic configuration where whole differs from, or is greater than, the sum of its parts.
gestationThe time period of development from fertilization to birth.
gestureA movement that helps express a feeling, idea, intention or opinion.
GFRglomerular filtration rate
GHgrowth hormone
GIgastrointestinal
giardiasisAn intestinal infection caused by the protozoan Giardia lamblia. It is spread via contaminated food and water and by direct person-to-person contact.
giga-billion
gigant/ohuge
gigantismAbnormal growth due to an excess of growth hormone during childhood.ji-gan´tizm
gingiv/ogums
gingivaOral tissue surrounding and attached to teeth. Gum.
gingivitisInflammation of gum tissue.jin″jĭ-vi´tis
glabellaThe area between the eyebrows immediately above the nose.
glandersA chronic bacterial infection of horses occasionally transmitted to humans.
glandular feverInfectious mononucleosis.
glareA bright, dazzling light which produces discomfort and impairs vision.
glasgow coma scaleA scale for measuring level of consciousness, especially after craniocerebral injury
glaucomaA disease that damages the optic nerve. Often caused by abnormally high pressure in the eye.glou-ko´mah
gleason scoreA method of classifying malignancy of prostate cancers.
glenoid cavityA depression in the lateral angle of the scapula that articulates with the head of the humerus.
gli/oglue-like
-globincontaining protein
globulinAny of a class of proteins that are found in blood plasma, milk and muscle that are insoluble in pure water but soluble in dilute salt solutions
globusA sphere. A spherical structure.
glomerul/oglomerulus
glomerulusA small tuft of blood capillaries in the kidney that is an integral part of the nephron, the basic unit of the kidney.
gloss/otongue
glossitisInflammation of the tongue.
glottisThe vocal apparatus of the larynx, situated in the middle section of the larynx.
glucagonA peptide hormone produced in the pancreas that opposes insulin.gloo´kah-gon
gluco-relating to glucose
glucoseSugar in the blood that supplies energy to cells.gloo´kōs
glyc/oglucose, sugar
glycemic indexA numerical system of measuring the rate of blood glucose generation from a particular food item.
glycemic loadA quantitative value of a measured amount of a specific food that is equal to the glycemic index of that food multiplied by the carbohydrate content of that food.
glycineA non-essential amino acid that is a major component of gelatin and silk fibroin. It used therapeutically as a nutrient.
glycosuriaThe appearance of an abnormally amount of glucose in the urine.
gmgram
gnath-jaw, cheek
gnos/oknowledge
GnRHgonadotropin-releasing hormone
goiterEnlargement of the thyroid gland causing a swelling in the front part of the neck.
gon-seed, genital
gonad/osex glands
gonadalPertaining to or arising from a gonad.
gonadsThe sex glands, ovary or testis.
goni/oangle
gonorrheaA sexually transmitted bacterial disease, mostly seen in young adults.gon″o-re´ah
gout Acute arthritis that causes severe pain and swelling in the joints due to the accumulation of urate crystals.
GPgeneral practitioner
grgrain
-gradestep, degree in a scale
graftAny tissue or organ for transplantation.
-gramrecording, metric unit of weight
gram stainA method of staining bacteria, which is important in their identification.
granul/osmall grain
granulation tissueA vascular connective tissue formed on the surface of a healing wound, ulcer, or inflamed tissue. It consists of new capillaries and an infiltrate containing lymphoid cells, macrophages, and plasma cells.
granulomaA clump of cells that forms when the immune system fights harmful substance but cannot remove it from the body. Often foreign bodies stimulate these cells.gran″u-lo´mah
-graphinstrument that records
-graphyprocess of recording
gravgravida
Graves diseaseAn immune disease that causes hyperthyroidism.
gravid/opregnancy
-gravidapregnant
gravidityPregnant.
groinThe external junctural region between the lower part of the abdomen and the thigh.
GSWgunshot wound
GTTglucose tolerance test
GUgenitourinary
guaifenesinAn expectorant that also has some muscle relaxing action. It is used in many cough preparations.
Guillain-Barre syndromeA disorder in which the immune system attacks the nerves. A rare disease, usually preceded by a viral infectiongē-yan[h]'
guttaOne drop.
GVHDgraft-versus-host disease
GXTgraded exercise test
GYNgynecology
gynec/owoman, female
gynecologyThe branch of medicine dealing with diseases unique to women, especially those of the genital tract and breasts.
gynecomastiaNon-cancerous swelling of the breast tissue in males due to an imbalance of hormones. Common in pre-adolescence, benign and self-limiting.jin″ĕ-ko-mas´te-ah]
gyno-woman
gyr-ring, circle