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Medical Dictionary - Eyes And Ears

abducens nerveA small cranial nerve which originates in the pons and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the eye. It provides horizontal eye movement control.
adnexaAppendages of an organ (e.g. eyelids to the eyeball)ad-nek´sah
alacrimaDry eye.
amaurosisPartial or complete blindness caused by a disease.
ambly/odull, dim
amblyopiaDecrease of vision due to abnormal development during childhood. Also known as lazy″ble-o´pe-ah]
ametropiaAn eye problem caused by faulty″ĕ-tro´pe-ah
anisocoriaUnequal pupil sizes. Affects 20% of the″so-kor´e-ah
anterior chamberThe space between the cornea and the iris, filled with aqueous humor.
aphakiaAbsence of the eye's lens.ah-fa´ke-ah
aqueous humorThe clear, watery fluid circulating in the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye.
ARMDage-related macular degeneration
astigmatismA common and generally easily treatable imperfection in the curvature of the eye. ah-stig´mah-tizm
audiologyThe study of hearing and hearing impairment.
audiometryA noninvasive test that measures the ability to hear different tones and'dē-om'ĕ-trē
auralRefers to the ear or´ral
basilar membraneA basement membrane in the cochlea that supports the hair cells of the organ of Corti.
biconcaveConcave on both sides, as in a lens design.
biconvexConvex on both sides, particularly in a lens design.
binauralRelating to the use of both ears.
binocularRelating to the use of both eyes.
blepharitisInflammation of the eyelids.
blepharoplastyCosmetic eyelid surgery. Also called eyelid lift.blef·ə·rə‚plas·dē
blepharospasmSpasmodic winking caused by the involuntary contraction of an eyelid muscle.
blindnessThe inability to see.
blinkingBrief closing and reopening of the eyelids by involuntary or voluntary action.
cerumenThe yellow or brown waxy secretions produced by sweat glands in the external ear canal. Earwax.
chalazionA small bump on the eyelid that forms due to blockage and swelling of an oil gland at the base of the eyelash.kah-la´ze-on
choroidThe thin, highly vascular layer between the retina and sclera.
choroiditisInflammation of the choroid layer of the eye.
cochle/ocochlea (inner part of ear)
cochleaThe part of the inner ear (labyrinth) that is concerned with hearing.
cochlear implantAn electronic device that provides a sense of sound to deaf or severely hard of hearing people.kok'lē-ăr
color blindnessA weakness or inability to distinguish colors. A common form is the inability to distinguish red from green.
conjunctiv/omucous membrane that lines the inner surface of eyelids
conjunctivaThe mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.
conjunctivitisAn inflammation of the clear tissue that lines the white part of the eye. Also called pink eye.kon-junk″tĭ-vi´tis
corneaThe transparent, convex, anterior part of eye. It is the main refractory structure of the eye.
corneal edemaAn excessive amount of fluid in the cornea due to damage of the epithelium or endothelium causing decreased visual acuity.
dacryoadenitisInflammation of the lacrimal glands (the eye’s tear-producing glands).dak″re-o-ad″ĕ-ni´tis
dacryocystitisInflammation of the lacrimal sac.
dark adaptationAdjustment of the retina and pupil of the eyes under conditions of low light enabling increased sensitivity to light.
deafnessA general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.
diopterA unit of measurement of the refractive power of a lens.
diplopiaDouble vision.dĭ-plo´pe-ah
dry eye syndromeCorneal and conjunctival dryness due to deficient tear production.
earThe hearing and equilibrium system of the body. Sound vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the acoustic nerve to the central nervous system. The inner ear contains the vestibular organ that responsible for equilibrium.
earachePain in the ear.
ectropionA condition where the lower eyelid droops away from the eye and turns outwards.ek-tro´pe-on
EENTeye, ear, nose, and throat
emmetropiaA state when rays are focused correctly on the retina of a relaxed eye.em″ĕ-tro´pe-ah
entropionThe eyelid is rolled inward toward the eye.en-tro´pe-on
epiphoraOverflow of tears due to obstruction of the lacrimal duct.
episcleraThe loose connective tissue between the sclera and the conjunctiva.
episcleritisAn inflammation of the sclera, causing redness of the eye.
esotropiaAn inward turning of one or both″o-tro´pe-ah
exotropia One or both of the eyes turn outward.ek″so-tro´pe-ah
eyeThe organ of vision.
eyebrowThe bony ridge extending over the eye and the row of hair located on it.
eyelashesThe hairs which project from the edges of the eyelids.
eyelidsEach of the upper and lower folds of skin which cover the eye when closed.
floaterA speck or string that appears to be drifting across the eye just outside the line of vision.
fluorescein angiographyAn eye test that uses a special dye and camera to look at blood flow in the retina and choroid. floo͡-res´ēn
focusThe point at which rays of line converge after passing through a lens.
glareA bright, dazzling light which produces discomfort and impairs vision.
glaucomaA disease that damages the optic nerve. Often caused by abnormally high pressure in the eye.glou-ko´mah
HDhearing distance
hearingThe ability to perceive sounds.
hemianopiaThe loss of part of the field of view on the same side, in both eyes. A common side effect of stroke or brain injury. hem″e-ah-no´pe-ah
heterophoriaA tendency for deviation of the eyes from parallelism, prevented by binocular vision.
hippusRhythmic pupillary dilation and constriction, independent of changes in illumination or convergence.
hordeolumBlockage of an eyelid gland causing a small inflamed cyst at the lid margin. Also called a stye.hor-de´o-lum
hyperopiaFarsightedness. Distant objects can be seen clearly, but close ones do not come into proper focus. hi″per-o´pe-ah
hyphemaBleeding in the anterior chamber of the eye.
infectious myringitisAn infection causing painful blisters on the eardrum. More often seen in children than adults. Causal agent is Mycoplasma.mĭ-rin-ji´tis
iridectomySurgical removal of part of the″ĭ-dek´to-me
iridoplegiaParalysis of the sphincter muscle of the iris or the dilator muscle
irisThe circular pigmented membrane behind the cornea of the eye that gives the eye its color. The iris surrounds a central opening called the pupil.
iritisInflammation of the iris.i-ri´tis
kerat/ocornea, horny, hard
keratitisInflammation of the corneaker″ah-ti´tis
keratoconjunctivitisInflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.
keratoconusA conical protrusion of the central part of the cornea.
labyrinthA complex system of ducts and cavities that comprise the organs of hearing and balance.
labyrinth/oinner ear
labyrinthectomyAn ear operation used for Meniere's syndrome.lab´ĭ-rin-thek´to-me
labyrinthitisInflammation of the inner ear (labyrinth).
laser trabeculoplastyUsing a very focused beam of light to treat the drainage angle of the eye. trah-bek´u-lo-plas″te
logad/owhites of the eyes
macula luteaAn oval, yellow spot in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery.
macularDenoting the central retina.
macular degenerationDegenerative changes in the retina usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field.
maculopathyAny pathologic condition of the macula lutea.
malleusThe largest and outermost of the three ossicles of the ear. Also called hammer.
mastoidectomySurgical removal of mastoid air cells in the hollow, air-filled spaces in the skull behind the ear. mas″toi-dek´to-me
mastoiditisInflammation of the mastoid air cells It is usually a complication of otitis media.
meibomian glandsThe small sebaceous glands located on the inner surface of the eyelids between the tarsal plates and conjunctiva.
miosisExcessive pupillary constriction.
mioticsDrugs causing contraction of the pupil.
mydriasisAbnormal dilation of the pupil.mĭ-dri´ah-sis
myopiaNearsightedness. A condition where close objects appear clearly, but distant objects appear blurry.mi-o´pe-ah
myring/otympanic membrane (eardrum)
myringitisInflammation of the eardrum.
myringotomySurgical incision in the eardrum to relieve fluid pressure.mir″ing-got´ah-me
nasolacrimal ductA tubular duct that conveys tears from the lacrimal gland to the nose.
nictationA reflex that closes and opens the eyes rapidly. Blinking.
night blindnessFailure or reduced ability to see in dim light.
nyctalopiaNight blindness.nik″tah-lo´pe-ah
nystagmusA vision condition in which the eyes make repetitive, uncontrolled movements, usually side to side.nis-tag´mus
ocular absorptionUptake of substances by tissues of the eye.
ocular hypertensionA condition in which the intraocular pressure is elevated above normal and which may lead to glaucoma.
ocular hypotensionAbnormally low intraocular pressure often related to chronic inflammation.
oculomotorPertaining to or affecting eye movements.
ophthalmiaSevere inflammation of the eye.
ophthalmicPertaining to the eye.
ophthalmologyA surgical specialty concerned with the treatment of eye defects and diseases.
ophthalmoplegiaParalysis of one or more of the ocular muscles.
ophthalmoscopyAn examination of the back part of the eye (fundus), which includes the retina, optic disc, choroid, and blood vessels.of″thal-mos´kah-pe
-opiavision condition
opt/oeye, vision
optic nerveThe second cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the retina to the brain.
optic neuritisInflammation of the optic nerve.
optic tractNerve fiber originating from the optic chiasm that connects predominantly to the lateral geniculate bodies. it is the continuation of the visual pathway that conveys the visual information originally from the retina to the optic chiasm via the optic nerves.
optometryThe professional practice of primary eye and vision care that includes the measurement of visual refractive power and the correction of visual defects with lenses or glasses.
orbital myositisInflammation of the extraocular muscle of the eye. It is characterized by swelling.
ossicleA small bone, especially of the middle ear.
ot/oear, hearing
otalgiaEar ache.o-tal´jah
otitisInflammation of the ear, which may be marked by pain, fever, hearing disorders and vertigo.
otitis mediaAn ear infection of the middle ear, the area just behind the eardrum.o-ti´tis
otolaryngologyA surgical specialty concerned with the study and treatment of disorders of the ear, nose, and throat.
otologyThe study of diseases of the ear.
otomycosisA fungal infection of the external auditory canal.o″to-mi-ko´sis
otopyorrheaDischarge of pus from ear.o″to-pi″o-re´ah
otorrheaEar discharge.o″to-re´ah
otosclerosisA disease of the bones of the middle and inner ear.o″to-sklĕ-ro´sis
otoscopeAn instrument designed to inspect the ear.
panuveitisInflammation of both the anterior and posterior segments of the uvea tract.
papilledemaSwelling of the optic disk due to increased intracranial pressure.pap″il-ĕ-de´mah
PD (2)pupillary distance
periorbital edemaA condition in which the tissues around the eyes become swollen. Puffy eyes.ĕde´mah
PERRLApupils equal, regular, react to light and accommodation
phac/opertaining to lens
phak/opertaining to lens
photalgiaPain in the eye causes by bright light.
photophobiaAbnormal sensitivity to″to-fo´be-ah
photoretinitisInjury to the retina of the eye caused by looking directly into the sun without protection.
presbycusisHearing loss that gradually occurs in most individuals as they grow older.pres″be-ku´sis
presbyopiaAn age-related condition when the eye's lens doesn't change shape as easily as it once didpres″be-o´pe-ah
proptosisProtrusion or bulging of the eye.
pseudophakiaPresence of an intraocular lens after cataract extraction.
ptosisDrooping of the upper´sis
pupilThe aperture in the iris through which light passes.
radial keratotomyA surgical procedure used to decrease nearsightedness.ker″ah-tot´ah-me
retinaThe ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. The innermost layer of the eye, which receives images transmitted through the lens and contains the receptors for vision, the rods and cones
retinitisInflammation of the retina.
retinopexyA surgery for certain types of retinal detachments.ret´in-o-pek″se
saccadesAn abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.
sacculeOne of the two membranous sacs within the vestibule of the inner ear. It contains fluid, responses to gravity and provides the brain with information about head position.
scler/owhite of eye, hard
scleraThe white, opaque, fibrous, outer envelope of the eyeball, covering it entirely except the cornea.
scleritisA severe, vision-threatening inflammation of the white part of the eye.sklĕ-ri´tis
scotomaAn area of diminished vision within the visual field.
scotopicPertaining to the adjustment of the eye to low illumination.
semicircular canalsThree long canals (anterior, posterior, and lateral) of the bony labyrinth. They are set at right angles to each other and are concerned with balance.
sensorineural hearing lossLoss of hearing resulting from problems in the inner ear. A common hearing impairment.sen″sŏ-re-noor´al
snow blindnessA painful eye condition caused by exposure of insufficiently protected eyes to ultraviolet (UV) rays. Also called photokeratitis.
staped/ostapes (a middle ear bone)
stapedectomySurgical removal of the stapes.sta″pe-dek´tah-me
stapesOne of the three ossicles of the middle ear. It transmits sound vibrations from the incus to the internal ear.
strabismusA condition that causes crossed eyes.strah-biz´mus
styeAcute bacterial inflammation of a gland at the base of an eyelash.
tarsorrhaphyJoining of part or all of the upper and lower eyelids so as to partially or completely close the eye. tahr-sor´ah-fe
tearsThe fluid secreted by the lacrimal glands. This fluid moistens the conjunctiva and cornea.
tectorial membraneA membrane, present in the cochlea of the inner ear, that runs parallel with the basilar membrane.
tinnitusThe perception of sound in the head when no outside sound is present. Commonly called 'ringing in the ears'.tin´ĭ-tus
TMtympanic membrane
tonometryA test that measures intraocularĕ-tre
trachomaA chronic infection of the conjunctiva and cornea caused by chlamydia trachomatis.
trichiasisA condition of ingrown hair around an orifice, particularly ingrown eyelashes.
tympanic membraneA thin, oval, semitransparent membrane separating the external ear canal from the tympanic cavity (ear, middle).
tympanocentesisNeedle aspiration of fluid from the middle ear through a puncture in the tympanic membrane.
tympanometryA test that measures the movement of the tympanic membrane (eardrum).tim″pah-nom´ĕ-tre
uvealPertaining to the uvea.
uveitisInflammation of the uvea.
VAvisual acuity
vertigoA feeling of dizziness and disorientation.ver´tĭ-go
Vf (2)field of vision
vitre/ovitreous body
vitrectomySurgery to remove vitreous gel from the eye.vĭ-trek´tah-me
vitreous bodyThe transparent, semi gelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the crystalline lens of the eye and in front of the retina.
xerophthalmiaSevere dry eyes caused by a malfunction of the tear glands.zēr″of-thal´me-ah