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Medical Dictionary - Reproductive


TermDefinitionPronunciation
abortifacientAn agent, usually a medication, that causes abortion.
acrosomeThe cap-like structure covering the anterior portion of spermatozoon. It contains enzymes necessary for sperm penetration of the egg.
adrenarcheA development stage when the adrenal glands mature, leading to the increased production of adrenal androgens, dehydroepiandrosterone and androstenedione. Adrenarche usually begins at about 7 or 8 years of age before the signs of puberty and continues throughout puberty.
AFPalpha-fetoprotein
afterbirthThe placenta, umbilical cord and membranes that are expelled from the uterus after birth
amenorrheaAbsence of menstruation.a-men″o-re´ah
amni/oamnion, sac around embryo
amniocentesisDiagnostic test for chromosomal abnormalities and fetal infections. A small amount of fluid is removed from the amniotic sac.am″ne-o-sen-te´sis
amniotic fluidA clear, yellowish liquid that surrounds the fetus, protecting it from injury.
andr/omale
androgenSteroid hormones that stimulate development of male reproductive organs, beard growth, voice changes and muscles.
andropauseMale menopause.an´dro-pawz
androsteroneA metabolite of testosterone or androstenedione.
anovulationSuspension or cessation of ovulation by the ovaries.
antepartal careHealth care provided during pregnancy.
Apgar scoreNewborn health assessment score (0-10).
Two points each: Appearance of skin color, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, Respiration.
aphrodisiacAn agent that stimulates sexual desire.
aplasiaDefective development of an organ or tissue.
areolaA ring of pigmented skin surrounding a nipple.ah-re´o-lah
ASC-USatypical squamous cells of undetermined significance
aspermiaA condition characterized by the complete absence of semen.
ateliosisA form of dwarfism.
azoospermiaA complete absence of sperm in the ejaculate.a-zo″o-sper´me-ah
balan/oglans penis
balanitisInflammation of the glans penis.
balanoposthitisInflammation of the glans penis in uncircumcised males.
bisexualityAn individual who is sexually attracted to both sexes.
BPHbenign prostatic hyperplasia
breastA mammary gland of women.
breastfeedingFeeding a baby milk from the breast.
BSEbreast self-examination
castrationRemoval of the sex glands.
caulAmniotic sac that encloses the fetus.
-celeswelling, hernia
cervical dysplasiaThe abnormal growth of precancerous cells on the surface of the cervix. dis-pla´zhah
cervicitisAn inflammation of the cervixser″vĭ-si´tis
cervix uteriThe neck portion of the uterus between the lower isthmus and the vagina forming the cervical canal.
cesarean sectionA surgical incision through the abdominal wall and uterus, performed to deliver a fetus.
chlamydiaA common sexually transmitted disease.klah-mid´e-ah
chordomaA rare, malignant tumor that develops from the embryonic remains of the notochord.
chori/ochorion (outer fetal sac)
chorionThe embryonic membrane surrounding the developing embryo. The chorion evolves into the fetal contribution of the placenta.
chorionic villus samplingA prenatal diagnostic test to detect chromosomal problemskor″e-on´ik
circumcisionSurgical removal of the foreskin of the penis.
clitorisAn erectile structure homologous with the penis, situated beneath the anterior labial commissure, partially hidden between the anterior ends of the labia minora.
coitusSexual intercourse.
colostrumMilk produced in late pregnancy. High in protein and antibody content.ko-los´trum
colp/ovagina
colposcopyThe examination of the cervix and vagina by means of an endoscope introduced vaginally.
colpotomyAn incision in the vagina.
conceptionWhen a spermatozoon enters an ovum. The beginning of pregnancy.
condomA sheath that is worn over the penis during sex in order to prevent pregnancy or the spread of sexually transmitted disease.
consanguinityKinship. The hereditary relationship between persons.
contraceptionPrevention of impregnation.
contractionA shortening or increase in tension. In labor, the rhythmic tightening of the uterus.
copulationSexual union.
culd/ocul-de-sac
-cyesispregnancy
D&Cdilatation and curettage
deciduaThe membrane lining the wall of the uterus during pregnancy.
DUBdysfunctional uterine bleeding
dysmenorrheaPainful cramps that can occur immediately before or during the menstrual period. dis″men-ŏ-re´ah
dystociaDifficult childbirth.
eclampsiaA toxic disorder characterized by convulsions and possibly coma during or immediately after pregnancy
ectopic pregnancyWhen a fertilized egg implants outside of the uterus.ek-top´ik
ED (2)erectile dysfunction
EDDestimated date of delivery
eggA female reproductive cell prior to fertilization.
ejaculationThe sudden emission of semen from the male urethra.
embryoAny organism in the earliest stages of development.
embryo-related to embryo
embryologyThe study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.
endocervicitisInflammation of the mucous lining of the uterine cervix.en″do-ser″vĭ-si´tis
endodermThe inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.
endometri/oendometrium (mucous membrane lining the uterus)
endometriosisA painful, chronic disease where the tissue that normally grows inside the uterus grows outside it. May spread anywhere in the abdominal cavity.en″do-me″tre-o´sis
epididym/oepididymis (structure within the scrotum that stores sperm)
epididymisThe convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the testis.
epididymitisInflammation of the epididymis.ep″ĭ-did″ĭ-mi´tis
episi/ovulva
episiotomyAn incision made in the perineum to widens the opening of the vagina during childbirth.ĕ-piz″e-ot´ah-me
erectile dysfunctionThe consistent inability in the male to sustain an erection sufficient for sexual intercourse. Impotence.
fallopian tubesA pair of highly specialized muscular canals that conduct the ovum from the ovary to the uterus.
fet/ofetus
fetalOf, pertaining to, or having the character of a fetus.
fetusThe embryo of a mammal in the later stages of development
FHRfetal heart rate
fibroadenomaBenign tumors composed of stromal and epithelial tissue.fi″bro-ad″ĕ-no´mah
fibrocystic breast diseaseA painful, lumpy breast disease.fi″bro-sis´tik
FTNDfull term normal delivery
FTTfailure to thrive
galact/omilk
galactorrheaInappropriate lactation.gah-lak″to-re´ah
galactoseOne of the two simple sugars in the protein, lactose, found in milk. The other sugar is glucose.
gameteA mature sex cell.
GCgonorrhea
GDMgestational diabetes mellitus
geneA unit of inheritance carrying a single trait occupying a certain location on a chromosome.
geneticPertaining to reproduction or to birth or origin.
genit/oreproduction
genitaliaThe male and female reproductive organs.jen″ĭ-tāl´e-ah
gest/oto bear
gestationThe time period of development from fertilization to birth.
gon-seed, genital
gonad/osex glands
gonadalPertaining to or arising from a gonad.
gonadsThe sex glands, ovary or testis.
gonorrheaA sexually transmitted bacterial disease, mostly seen in young adults.gon″o-re´ah
gravgravida
gravid/opregnancy
-gravidapregnant
gravidityPregnant.
GYNgynecology
gynec/owoman, female
gynecologyThe branch of medicine dealing with diseases unique to women, especially those of the genital tract and breasts.
gyno-woman
hematocolposAn accumulation of menstrual blood in the vagina.
hematometraAn accumulation of menstrual blood in the uterus.
hematospermiaBlood in the semen.he·ma·to-sper´me-ah
hemospermiaBlood in the semen, often due to inflammation of the prostate or the seminal vesicles.
heredityThe transmission of traits encoded in genes from parent to offspring.
heterosexualityThe sexual attraction between members of the opposite sex.
heterosisGreater vigor of the first generation hybrid than is shown by either parent.
HGSILhigh-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion
homosexualityThe sexual attraction or relationship between members of the same sex.
HRThormone replacement therapy
HSILhigh-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion
HSVherpes simplex virus
hydroceleBuildup of the normal fluid around the testicle, common in infants, self-resolving.hi´dro-sēl
hymenA thin fold of mucous membrane situated at the orifice of the vagina.
hymen/omembrane
hypogonadismAbnormally low functional activity of the gonads, with diminished growth and sexual development
hypomenorrheaExtremely light menstrual blood flow.hy·po-men″o-re´ah
hyster/outerus
hysterectomySurgical removal of the uterus. his″tĕ-rek´to-me
hysterosalpingographyFluoroscopic examination of the uterus and fallopian tubes.hys-tero-sal″ping-gog´rah-fe
hysteroscopyExamination of the uterine cavity using an endoscope.his′təros′kepē
hysterotomyAn incision in the uterus, performed through either the abdomen or the vagina.
IDMinfants of diabetic mothers
impotenceThe inability to sustain a penile erection to allow normal vaginal intercourse.
in vitroIn a glass. In an artificial environment outside a living organism
inductionCausing to occur.
infertilityInability to conceive and produce viable offspring.
inguinal canalA tunnel in the abdominal wall through which a testis descends into the scrotum.
inseminationThe deposit of seminal fluid within the vagina.
intrauterineWithin the uterine cavity.
IUCDintrauterine contraceptive device
IUDintrauterine device
IUFDintrauterine fetal distress
IUPintrauterine pregnancy
IVFin vitro fertilization
L&Dlabor and delivery
laborThe childbirth process of expulsion of the fetus and placenta from the uterus.
lact/omilk
lactationProduction of milk by the mammary glands.
lacti-milk
LBWlow birth weight
lecith/oyolk, ovum
leiomyomaA benign neoplasm derived from smooth muscle tissue, also known as a fibroid tumor. They usually occur in the uterus.
leukorrheaNormal vaginal discharge during pregnancy . It is thin, white, milky and mild smelling.loo″ko-re´ah
libidoSexual desire.
-lipsisomit, fail
lmplast menstrual period
lochiaA vaginal discharge occurring during the first week or two after childbirth.
mamm-breast
mamm/obreast
mammary glandMilk producing gland.
mammoplastyPlastic surgery of the breasts.
mast/obreast
mastalgiaBreast pain.mas-tal´jah
mastopexyBreast lift surgery.mas´to-pek″se
men/omenstruation, menses
menarcheThe first menstrual period.mĕ-nahr´ke
menopauseThe permanent cessation of menstruation.
menorrhagiaExcessive uterine bleeding during menstruation.
mensesBlood and tissue discharged from the uterus periodically.
menstrual cycleThe period from onset of one menstrual bleeding to the next in an ovulating female. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the hypothalamus; the pituitary gland; the ovaries; and the genital tract.
menstruationThe (approximately) monthly discharge of blood and cellular debris from the uterus by nonpregnant women, occurring from puberty to menopause.
metr/outerus (womb)
metritisInflammation of the uterus.
metrorrhagiaAbnormal uterine bleeding that is not related to menstruation.
midwiferyThe practice of assisting women in childbirth.
miscarriageCommon term for the loss of an embryo or fetus before the 20th week of pregnancy.. This term is longer accepted in clinical usage.
monorchismAbsence of one testis.
morulaAn early embryo that is a compact mass.
myometriumThe smooth muscle coat of the uterus, which forms the main mass of the organ.
nat/obirth
natalRelating to birth.na´tal
neonatalPertaining to a new baby, for the first 28 days after birth.
neonateAn infant less than one month old.nē′ə-nāt′
nulligravidaA woman who has never been pregnant.
nulliparaA woman who has never borne a child.nŭ-lip´ah-rah
OBobstetrics
OB/GYNobstetrics & gynecology
obstetr/omidwife
obstetricsThe branch of medicine concerned with the care of women during pregnancy, parturition, and the puerperium.
OCoral contraceptive
oligohydramniosA condition of abnormally low amniotic fluid volume.
oligomenorrheaLight or infrequent menstrual periods. ol″ĭ-go-men″o-re´ah
oligospermiaA deficiency of spermatozoa in the semen, defined as a sperm count below 20 million per milliliter semen.
omphal/oumbilicus (navel)
ontogenyThe developmental history of an individual from inception to maturity.
oophor/oovary
oophorectomySurgical removal of an ovary or ovaries.o″of-o-rek´to-me
oophoritisInflammation of the ovary.
orchid/otesticles
orchidalgiaPain in the testicle.
orchidectomySurgical removal of one or both testicles.or″ke-ek´to-me
orchiectomyThe surgical removal of one or both testicles.
orchiopexySurgery to move an undescended testicle into the scrotum.or´ke-o-pek″se
orchitisInflammation of a testis.
orgasmThe climax of sexual excitement.
osche/oscrotum
ov/oegg, ovum
ovari/oovary
ovarianPertaining to the ovary.
ovarian cystsGeneral term for cysts and cystic diseases of the ovary.
ovarian neoplasmsTumors or cancer of the ovary. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant.
ovaryEither of the sex glands in females. They produce ova and hormones.
ovulationThe discharge of an ovum from a rupturing follicle in the ovary.
ovumA mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the ovary at ovulation.
PapPap test Papanicolaou smear
-parato bear offspring
paraphimosisA condition in which the foreskin, once retracted, cannot return to its original position. If this condition persists, it can lead to painful constriction of glans penis, swelling, and impaired blood flow to the penis.
parityThe number of viable offspring a female has borne.
-partumchildbirth
parturitionThe act of giving birth to one or more offspring.
penisThe external reproductive organ of males.
perimenopauseThe period of time before menopause when a woman's body changes.per″e-men´o-pawz
perimetritisInflammation of the peritoneal covering of the uterus
perinatalPertaining to the period three months before to one month after birth.
perine/operineum (surface region in both males and females between the pubic symphysis and the coccyx)
peripartum periodThe period shortly before, during, and immediately after giving birth.
Peyronie diseaseA condition where plaques form under the skin of the penis, causing the penis to bend.pā-rō-nē'
phall/openis
phimosisA condition of a narrowed or tightened foreskin that cannot be retracted to reveal the glans penis.
PIDpelvic inflammatory disease
PIHpregnancy-induced hypertension
placentaA vascular organ that develops during pregnancy, lining the uterine wall and partially enveloping the fetus. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones .
placenta previaA condition when the placenta covers part or all of the cervix during the last months of pregnancy.plah-sen´tah prē′vē·ə
PMSpremenstrual syndrome
polycystic ovary syndromeA condition in which a woman’s levels of the sex hormones estrogen and progesterone are out of balance. Often cause for infertilitypol″e-sis´tik
possetA small amount of milk that is regurgitated by infants after feeding.
postmenopauseThe physiological period following the menopause.
postpartumThe period that is shortly after giving birth.
preeclampsiaA serious pregnancy disorder characterized by high blood pressure, a large amount of protein in the urine and edema of hands and feet.pre″ĕ-klamp´se-ah
pregnancyCarrying developing offspring (embryos or fetuses) in utero before birth.
premature ejaculationThe emission of semen and seminal fluid during the act of preparation for sexual intercourse, i.e. before there is penetration, or shortly after penetration.
premenopauseThe period before menopause. The transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.
prepuceThe fold of skin that grows over the end of the penis.
priapismA abnormally prolonged erection of the penis.pri´ah-pizm
primigravidaA woman who is pregnant for the first time.pri″mĭ-grav´ĭ-dah
primiparaA woman who has given birth to one viable infant.
prolactinA pituitary hormone that stimulates and maintains lactation in postpartum mammals.
prostat/oprostate
prostateA gland that is part of a male reproductive system. Located below the bladder.pros´tāt
pruritus vulvaeItching of the vulva.proo-ri´tus vŭl'vē
puerperalThe period up until six to eight weeks after childbirth.
pyometraAccumulation of pus in the uterine cavity.
quickeningMovements of the fetus felt by the mother, usually after the first 16 weeks of pregnancy.
salping/ofallopian tube
salpingitisInflammation of the fallopian or eustachian tube.
salpingostomyFormation of an artificial opening in a fallopian tube.
scrot/oscrotum
scrotumA pouch of skin containing the testicles and spermatic cords.
semenThe thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. It contains spermatozoa and their nutrient plasma and secretions from the prostate and bulbourethral glands.
semin/isemen
seminomaA malignant neoplasm of the testis.
sexThe totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, phenotype, and genotype, differentiating the male from the female organism.
sexualityThe sexual functions, activities, attitudes, and orientations of an individual. Sexuality, male or female, becomes evident at puberty under the influence of gonadal steroids (testosterone or estradiol) and social effects.
SGAsmall for gestational age
shaken baby syndromeBrain injuries resulted from vigorous shaking of an infant or young child held by the chest, shoulders, or extremities causing extreme cranial acceleration. It is characterized by the intracranial and intraocular hemorrhages with no evident external trauma. Serious cases may result in death.
spermThe male gamete or sex cell that contains the genetic information to be transmitted by the male. Also called spermatozoon.
sperm/osperm cells
sperma-sperm, seed
spermatidsImmature sperm cells developed in the testicle.
spermatozoaMature male germ cells derived from spermatids.
STDsexually transmitted disease
sterileUnable to produce offspring.
syphilisA sexually transmitted disease. A bacterial infection.sif´ĭ-lis
TAHtotal abdominal hysterectomy
teratologyA branch of embryology for the study of congenital malformations and developmental abnormalities.
term birthchildbirth at the end of a normal duration of pregnancy, between 37 to 40 weeks of gestation.
test/itesticle
testicleThe testis and its ducts.
testisEither of the two male gonads located in the cavity of the scrotum.
TFStesticular feminization syndrome
thecomaA neoplasm derived from ovarian mesenchyme.
thel/enipple
thelarcheThe beginning of breast development at puberty.
thelo-nipple
toc/olabor, birth
-tociacondition of birth, labor
trichomoniasisA sexually transmitted disease caused by a single-celled protozoan parasite.trik″o-mo-ni´ah-sis
trimesterAny of the three successive three month periods of pregnancy.
tripletOne of three offspring born at one birth.
TURtransurethral resection
twinsTwo individuals derived from two fetuses that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the uterus simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic or dizygotic.
umbilic-umbilicus (navel)
umbilicalPertaining to the opening in the abdominal wall where the blood vessels from the placenta enter.
umbilical cordThe flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing fetus to the placenta. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.
umbilicusThe depression in the center of the abdominal wall where the umbilical cord entered in the fetus. Also called the navel.
uter/outerus
uterinePertaining to the uterus.
uterine prolapseA condition where the uterus drops down into the vagina.u´ter-in
uterusThe womb. A female reproductive organ located between the bladder and the rectum.u´ter-us
vagin/ovagina
vaginaAn muscular tube connecting the cervix of the uterus to the vulva and exterior of the body.vah-ji´nah
vaginalPertaining to the vagina.
vaginitisInflammation of the vagina marked by pain and a purulent discharge.
varic/ovarices (swollen veins)
varicoceleAbnormal enlargement of the veins of the spermatic cord.var´ĭ-ko-sēl″
vasectomySurgical removal of the ductus deferens usually as a means of sterilization.
vasovasostomyA surgical procedure in which the effects of a vasectomy (male sterilization) are reversed. vas″o-vah-sos´tah-me
VDvenereal disease
venere/osexual intercourse
vitellinePertaining to the vitellus.
vitellusYolk of an egg.
vulv/ovulva
vulvaThe external genitalia of the female. It includes the clitoris, the labia, the vestibule and its glands.
vulvitisInflammation of the vulva.
WDwell-developed
zygoteThe fertilized ovum resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.