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Medical Dictionary - Skeletal

acetabulumConcave surface of pelvis where the head of the femur liesas'ĕ-tab´u-lum
achondroplasiaA disorder that is a form of short-limb dwarfism.
acid etchingPreparation of tooth surfaces with etching agents, such as phosphoric acid, to roughen the surface to increase adhesion.
acromioclavicular jointThe gliding joint formed by the outer extremity of the clavicle and the inner margin of the acromion process of the scapula. This joint has six ligaments.
acromionThe lateral extension of the spine of the scapula and the highest point of the shoulder.
amputationThe removal of a limb or other body appendage.
ankleThe region between the foot and leg.
ankyl/obent, stiff
ankylosisFixation and immobility of a joint. ang″kĭ-lo´sis
anodontiaCongenital absence of most or all teeth.
anterior cruciate ligamentA strong ligament of the knee that extends from the anterior intercondylar area of the tibia to the posterior part of the medial surface of the lateral condyle of the femur. Responsible for controlling stability during knee rotation.
apophysisAn outgrowth or projection from a bone.
armThe superior part of the upper limb between the shoulder and the elbow.
arthralgiaJoint pain.ahr-thral´jah
arthritisInflammation of joints, characterized by pain, swelling and diminished range of motion.
arthrocentesisAspiration of fluid (e.g., synovial fluid) from a joint cavity.
arthrodesisThe surgical fixation of a joint by a procedure designed to accomplish fusion of the joint surfaces by promoting the proliferation of bone cells.ahr″thro-de´sis
arthrographyImaging of a joint, usually after injection of a contrast medium.
arthrolysisSurgical restoration of mobility in stiff, ankylosed joints.ahr-throl´ĭ-sis
arthroplastySurgical reconstruction of a joint to relieve pain or restore motion.
arthroscopyExamination, therapy and surgery of a joint using an endoscope.ahr-thros´kah-pe
articulationThe junction of two or more bones. Also, forming sounds into meaningful speech.
artificial limbsProsthetic replacements for arms and legs.
auranofinA drug for treating rheumatoid arthritis.
autologousOne individual being both donor and recipient (e.g. blood).aw-tol´ah-gus
backThe rear surface from the shoulders to the hip.
bicuspidA premolar tooth used for grinding food.
BMDbone mineral density
boneA dense, hard connective tissue that forms the framework of the skeleton.
bone densityThe amount of mineral per square centimeter of bone. Bone density is an important predictor for osteoporosis.
brachialRelating to the arm.
bregmaThe juncture of the coronal and sagittal sutures on the top of the cranium.
bruxismA disorder characterized by grinding and clenching of the teeth.
bunionAn area of thick tissue over the metatarsal phalangeal joint at the base of the great toe.
burs/obursa (fluid sac near joints)
bursitisInflammation of a bursa, the fibrous sac that acts as a cushion between moving structures of bones, muscles, tendons or skin.
calcaneusThe largest of the tarsal bones, situated at the lower and back part of the foot, forming the heel.
capsulitisInflammation of the capsule surrounding a joint.
carpalRelating to the wrist.
carpal bonesThe eight bones of the wrist: scaphoid bone; lunate bone; triquetrum bone; pisiform bone; trapezium bone; trapezoid bone; capitate bone; and hamate bone.
cartilageA non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of chondrocytes embedded in a matrix. There are three major types: hyaline cartilage; fibrocartilage; and elastic cartilage.
cephalicCranial. Relating to the head.
cerclageBinding together the ends of an oblique bone fracture or the chips of a broken patella.
cervic/oneck, cervix
cervicalPertaining to the neck.
chinThe prominence formed by the anterior projection of the mandible and the soft tissue covering it.
chondralPertaining to cartilage.
chondrocytePolymorphic cells that form cartilage.
chondrogenesisThe development of cartilage.
chondromaA benign tumor derived from mesodermal cells that form cartilagekon-dro´mah
ChondromalaciaAbnormal softening or degeneration of cartilage. A common runner's injury in the knees.kon″dro-mah-la´shah
chondrosarcomaA slowly growing malignant neoplasm of cartilage cells, occurring most frequently in pelvic bones, scapula or in long bones.
-clasisbreaking a bone
clavicleThe collar bone.
clubfootA congenital deformed foot in which the patient cannot stand with sole flat on the ground.
coccyg/ococcyx (tailbone)
collagenA fibrous protein comprising about one third of the total protein in the body. It is a main constituent of skin, bone, ligaments and cartilage.
costalPertaining to the ribs.
costochondritisA benign inflammation of one or more of the costal cartilages. Usually caused by overuse of chest wall muscles.kos′təkondrī′tis
cranialaPertaining to the cranium.
craniumThe skeleton of the head, holding the brain.
crepitationA crackling sound that occurs in joints.krep″ĭ-ta´shun
cubit/oelbow, forearm
cubitalPertaining to the elbow or forearm.
cuspidA tooth with one cusp. In particular, he third tooth to the left and to the right of the midline of either jaw.
dactyl/ofingers, toes
dactylitisPainful inflammation of the fingers or toes.
dentinThe main material of teeth. It is surrounded by pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root.
-desisbind, fixation
digit/ofinger, toe
dislocationDisplacement of a body part from its normal position. Commonly used to refer to a bone displaced from a joint.
DJDdegenerative joint disease
dorsalPertaining to the back or posterior.
elbow jointA hinge joint connecting the forearm to the arm.
enarthrosisA ball and socket joint.
endomorphA body type that is relatively soft and round.
epineuralOn a neural arch of a vertebra.
exoskeleton The exterior protective or supporting structure or shell of many animals.
exostosesAbnormal bony outgrowth from the surface of a bone
femor/ofemoral (thigh bone)
femoralPertaining to the thigh or femur.
femurThe longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
flexionThe act of bending a limb or the position that a limb assumes after it is bent.
footThe distal extremity of the leg, consisting of the tarsus, metatarsus, phalanges and the soft tissues surrounding the bones.
forearmPart of the arm in humans extending from the elbow to the wrist.
foreheadThe part of the face above the eyes.
FROMfull range of motion
frontal boneThe bone that forms the frontal aspect of the skull.
genu varumAn outward slant of the thigh in which the knees are wide apart and the ankles close together.
glenoid cavityA depression in the lateral angle of the scapula that articulates with the head of the humerus.
globusA sphere. A spherical structure.
gnath-jaw, cheek
gout Acute arthritis that causes severe pain and swelling in the joints due to the accumulation of urate crystals.
gyr-ring, circle
hallux valgusA bunion. A deformity of the joint connecting the big toe to the foot.hal'ŭks val'gŭs
handThe distal part of the arm beyond the wrist consisting of the carpus, metacarpus, and fingers.
headThe upper part of the body containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
hemarthrosisBleeding into the joints.he″mahr-thro´sis
hipThe region of the body around the joint between the top of the femur and side of the pelvis.
humerusThe bone of the upper arm. It extends from the shoulder joint to the elbow joint.
hyperostosisAbnormal thickening or growth of bone.
ili/oilium (uppermost and largest bone of the pelvis)
iliumThe largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.
incisorAny of the four maxillary and four mandibular teeth, having a sharp incisal edge.
ischiumThe inferior, dorsal portion of the hip bone.
ithy-erect, straight
jawBony structure of the mouth consisting of the mandible and the maxilla.
joint capsuleThe sac surrounding a joint. It is composed of an outer fibrous articular capsule and an inner synovial membrane.
JRAjuvenile rheumatoid arthritis
kineticsThe study of the interrelationships that exist between body parts and how those connections influence movement.
kneeThe joint between inferior femur and superior
kyph/obent, hump
kyphosisDeformities of the spine characterized by an exaggerated convexity of the vertebral column. Sometimes called round back or hunchback. ki-fo´sis
lacunaA small cavity or depression.
lamin/olamina (part of the vertebral arch that forms the roof of the spinal canal)
laminectomyA surgical procedure to remove a portion of the vertebral bone called the lamina.lam″ĭ-nek´to-me
legThe inferior part of the lower extremity between the knee and the ankle. Common usage is the entire lower limb.
ligamentFlexible, tough bands of fibrous tissue connecting bones at a joint.
lord/ocurve, swayback
lordosisAbnormal, concave curvature of the lower spine. Also called swayback. lor-do´sis
lox/ooblique, slanting
lumb/olower back
lumbagoMild to severe low back pain.lum-ba´go
lumbarReferring to the lower back below the thoracic vertebrae and above the sacral vertebrae.
-lysisloosening, separating
macrocephalyAbnormally large head.
malleolusThe bony prominence on either side of the ankle.mah-le´o-lus
malocclusionFaulty contact between the upper and lower teeth when the jaw is closed.
malunionFaulty alignment of broken bone fragments.
mandibleThe large, u-shaped bone that supports the lower teeth, forming the lower jaw.
mandibul/omandible (lower jaw bone)
manubriumThe uppermost part of the sternum.mah-noo´bre-um
mastoid/orounded protrusion of bone behind the ear
maxill/oupper jawbone formed from the fusion of two maxillary bones
maxillaOne of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw.
maxillofacialPertaining to the jaws and face.
mediastinalPertaining to a median septum or space between two parts of the body.
mega-large, great
meniscusCrescent-shaped cartilage inside the knee joint that absorb shock and stabilize the joint.
metacarpalsThe long bones in the hand located between the phalanges of the fingers and the carpal bones of the wrist.met'ă-kar'păl
metatarsal bonesThe five long bones of the metatarsus, articulating with the tarsal bones proximally and the phalanges of toes distally.
metatarsalgiaPain in the region of the metatarsus.
metatarsalsFive long bones in the foot, located between the ankle and toes.met″ah-tahr´sal
metatarsusThe part of the foot between the tarsus and the toes.
microdontiaAbnormally small teeth.
micrognathismAbnormally small jaw.
molarThe most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw which are used for grinding.
nasionA point on the skull where the top of the nose meets the ridge of the forehead.
neckThe body part connecting the head to the rest of the body.
noto- back
occipital boneThe curved, shield-shaped bone forming the lower rear part of the skull, enclosing the foramen magnum.
odontogenesisThe process of tooth development.
oligodontiaAbsence of some teeth.
oppositionRelation of the position of the thumb to the other fingers.
orbitBony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.
ORIFopen reduction internal fixation
orthodonticsThe dental specialty dealing with correction of dental abnormalities.
orthopedicsA surgical specialty which treats and corrects injuries, deformities and diseases to the skeletal system and joints.
orthoticA device for correcting an orthopedic problem. Commonly used for the foot.or-thot´ik
orthotic devicesA device used to support, align, or correct deformities of movable parts of the body.
osseousComposed of or resembling bone.
osteitisInflammation of the bone. os″te-i´tis
osteoarthritisA progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis.os″te-o-ahr-thri´tis
osteoblastomaA benign, painful, vascular tumor of bone marked by the formation of osteoid tissue, primitive bone and calcified tissue.
osteochondritisInflammation of a bone and its overlaying cartilage.
osteochondromaA cartilage-capped benign tumor that often appears as a stalk on the surface of bone.os″te-o-kon-dro´mah
osteochondrosisAny of a group of disorders of the growth ossification centers in children
osteocytesMature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the bone matrix.
osteogenesisThe process of bone formation.
osteologyThe science that studies the structure and function of bones.
osteolysisDissolution of bone.
osteomaA benign, slow growing tumor composed of bone tissue.
osteomalaciaAn interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets.os″te-o-mah-la´shah
osteonecrosisDeath of a bone or part of a bone.os″te-o-nĕ-kro´sis
osteophyteBony projection usually found around joints and often seen in arthritis.
osteoporosisReduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. os″te-o-po-ro´sis
osteosclerosisAn abnormal hardening or increased density of bone tissue.
osteotomyCutting of a bone.
palateThe structure that forms the roof of the mouth. It consists of the anterior hard palate and the posterior soft palate.
paratenonThe fatty or synovial tissue between a tendon and its sheath.
parietal boneOne of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the frontal bone and occipital bone, which together form the sides of the cranium.
patellaThe flat, triangular bone about 5 cm in diameter, situated at the anterior part of the knee. Also called the kneecap.
pelvisThe lower portion of the trunk, bounded anteriorly and laterally by the two hip bones and posteriorly by the sacrum and coccyx.
periarthritisInflammation of the tissues around a joint capsule.
periosteumThick, fibrous membrane covering the surface of a bone except its articular cartilage and areas where it attaches to tendons and ligaments.
periostitisInflammation of the periosteum.
petr/ostone, stone-like hardness
phalangitisInflammation of a finger or toe.
-physisgrowth, growing
PIPproximal interphalangeal
plagiocephalyThe condition characterized an irregular shape of the head often in parallelogram shape with a flat spot on the back or one side of the head.
plantarBottom of the footplan´ter
platybasiaA malformation of the cranium so that the floor of the posterior cranial fossa bulges upward in the region about the foramen magnum.
polyarthritisSimultaneous inflammation of several joints.
polychondritisInflammation of cartilage.
polydactylyA congenital anomaly of the hand or foot, characterized by supernumerary digits.
poplitealPertaining to the area behind the knee.
-porosisdecrease in density
postureThe position of the body.
precordiumThe region of the thorax immediately over the heart.
prosthesisA device that replaces a missing body part or makes a part of the body work better. pros-the´sis
pseudarthrosisA new, false, fibrous joint arising at the site of an ununited fracture.
psoriatic arthritisArthritis associated with psoriasis, affecting joints and the spine.
pub/opubic, pubes
pubic boneA bone that forms the lower and anterior part of each side of the hip bone.
pubic symphysisA slightly movable cartilaginous joint which occurs between the pubic bones.
pyarthrosisAcute inflammation of synovial membranes.
rachi/ospinal column
RFrheumatoid factor
rheumatic diseasesDisorders of connective tissue, especially the joints and related structures, characterized by inflammation, degeneration, or metabolic derangement.
rheumatoid arthritisAn autoimmune disease that causes pain, swelling, and stiffness in the joints, commonly the hands and wrists. May lead to early crippling.roo´mah-toid
ribsThe flat, curved bones that form a protective cage for the chest organs, consisting of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage.
ricketsA disease of growing bone caused by interruption of bone mineralization. Caused by lack of vitamin D.rik´ets
ROMrange of motion
sacr/osacrum (large bone at base of spine)
sacroiliitisInflammation of the sacroiliac joint, marked by lower back pain, fever, uveitis, psoriasis and decreased range of motion.
sacrumThe large, triangular bone at the dorsal part of the pelvis, between the two hip bones. The sacrum strengthens and stabilizes the pelvis.
sagittalA plane that extends down the long axis of the body, parallel to the median plane.
scaphoid boneThe bone which is located most lateral in the proximal row of carpal bones.
scapul/oscapula (shoulder blade)
scapulaThe flat triangular bone in the back of the shoulder. Also called the shoulder blade.
scoli/ocurved, crooked
scoliosisA sideways curvature of the spine that occurs most often during the growth spurt just before puberty. sko″le-o´sis
sesamoidDenoting a small nodular bone embedded in a tendon or joint capsule and that slides over another bony surface. The patella is a sesamoid bone.
shoulderThe junction of the clavicle, scapula, and humerus where the arm connects to the trunk.
shoulder dislocationDisplacement of the humerus from the scapula.
skeletonThe rigid framework of connected bones that gives form to the body, protects and supports its soft organs and tissues and provides attachments for muscles.
skullThe skeleton of the head including the facial bones and the bones enclosing the brain.
slingA bandage that supports an injured limb.
sphenoid boneAn irregular unpaired bone situated at the skull base and wedged between the frontal, temporal, and occipital bones.
sphenoid/osphenoid (compound bone at base of skull)
spina bifidaA spinal birth defect.spi´nah bĭf′ĭ-də
spineThe spinal or vertebral column.
spondyl/overtebra, backbone
spondylitisInflammation of the synovial joints of the backbone.
spondylolisthesisForward displacement of a superior vertebral body over the vertebral body below.
spondylolysisThe degeneration of a vertebra.spon″dĭ-lol´ĭ-sis
spondylosisA degenerative spinal disease that can involve any part of the vertebra, the intervertebral disk, and the surrounding soft tissue.
stern/osternum (breastbone)
sternoclavicular jointA double gliding joint formed by the clavicle, superior and lateral parts of the manubrium sternum at the clavicular notch and the cartilage of the first rib.
sternumA long, narrow, and flat bone commonly known as breastbone occurring in the midsection of the anterior thoracic segment or chest region, which stabilizes the rib cage and serves as the point of origin for several muscles that move the arms, head and neck.
subtalar jointFormed by the articulation of the talus with the calcaneus.
synovectomyRemoval of part or all of the synovial membrane of a jointsin″o-vek´tah-me
synovi/osynovial membrane, synovial joint
tal/otalus, ankle
talusThe second largest of the tarsal bones, articulating with the tibia and fibula to form the ankle joint.
tars/otarsal bone (ankle), edge of eyelid
tarsalPertaining to the bones of the ankle and foot.
tarsal bonesThe seven bones which form the tarsus: calcaneus, talus, cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.
tarsal jointsThe articulations between the various tarsal bones.
tarsalgiaPain in the foot.
tarsusThe bones of the ankle and proximal part of the foot.
taxisReturning a body part back to its normal position after a dislocation, fracture or hernia.
temporal boneEither of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing.
tendinitisInflammation of a tendon.
tendinosisDegeneration of a tendon.
tendonA strap of white fibrous connective tissue that joins muscle to bone.
tennis elbowA condition characterized by pain in or near the lateral humeral epicondyle or in the forearm extensor muscle mass as a result of unusual strain.
tenodesisFixation of the end of a tendon to a bone, often by suturing.
tenoplastySurgical repair of a tendon.
tenosynovitisInflammation of the synovial lining of a tendon sheath.
tenotomySurgical division of a tendon for relief of a congenital deformity of a joint.
THRtotal hip replacement
thumbThe first digit on the radial side of the hand opposite the other four digits.
tibiaThe medial and larger of the two bones of the lower leg, articulating with the fibula laterally, the talus distally, and the femur proximally.
TKRtotal knee replacement
TMJtemporomandibular joint
toothOne of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.
toothachePain in or around a tooth.
ulnaThe inner and longer bone of the forearm.
ulnarPertaining to the ulna, the long medial bone of the forearm.
vertebraeThe bones or segments composing the spinal column, ver'te-bra
xiph/osword shaped, xiphoid
zygomaEither of a pair of bones that form the prominent part of the CHEEK and contribute to the ORBIT on each side of the SKULL.