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Medical Dictionary: b

TermDefinitionCategory
b.i.d.bid twice a day
Babarium general
BACblood alcohol concentration nervous
bacilliA rod-shaped bacterium. lymphatic
bacillusA large genus of rod-shaped, gram-positive, spore-bearing bacteria.General
backThe rear surface from the shoulders to the hip. Skeletal
baclofenA muscle relaxing drug.Muscular
bacteremiaThe presence of bacteria in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common manifestations of bacteremia.Cardiovascular
bacteri-bacteriageneral
bacteriaSingle cell living things. One of the three domains of life.lymphatic
bacterial endocarditisInflammation of the heart's lining or valves caused by bacteria in the bloodstream. Cardiovascular
bactericideA substance that kills bacteria.General
bacteriophageA virus that attacks bacteria.General
bacteriuriaThe presence of bacteria in the urine. Bacteriuria can be symptomatic or asymptomatic.Endocrine
BADLbasic activities of daily livingGeneral
balan/oglans penisreproductive
balanitisInflammation of the glans penis. Reproductive
balanoposthitisInflammation of the glans penis in uncircumcised males.Reproductive
ballismAbnormal involuntary movements of the limbs.Muscular
bandagesMaterial used for wrapping or binding any part of the body. Used to secure wound dressing or immobilize a limb.General
bar/opressure, weightgeneral
barbiturateA sedative that depresses respiratory rate, blood pressure, temperature and the central nervous system.Nervous
bariatric surgerySurgical procedures aimed at producing major weight reduction in patients with morbid obesity. Digestive
bariatricsActivities related to weight reduction in patients with obesity including diet, exercise, medication and surgery.digestive
baroreceptorOne of the blood pressure sensitive nerve ending in heart's atria, aorta and the carotid sinuses.Cardiovascular
barotraumaInjury caused by ambient pressure changes especially to the ear drums and lungs. General
barrier creamLotions and ointments used to protect the skin from allergens and irritants.Integumentary
bary-heavy, hard, dullgeneral
basbasilarcardiovascular
bas/obase, bottomgeneral
basal cell carcinomaA malignant tumor. A common form of skin cancer. Metastasis is rare.Integumentary
basal gangliaLarge grey masses at the base of the cerebral hemisphere.Nervous
basal metabolismThe minimum amount of energy needed to maintain vital body functions.General
basi-base, foundationgeneral
basilar membraneA basement membrane in the cochlea that supports the hair cells of the organ of Corti.Eyes and Ears
basophilsGranular leukocytes which stain blue-black with basic dyes. Active in inflammatory responses.Cardiovascular
bathy-depth, deepgeneral
battery1) The wrongful use of force on a person. 2) A electrical energy source formed by two or more electrolytic cells.General
bayes theoremA probability theorem used in clinical decision analysis for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result. General
BBBbundle branch block Cardiovascular
BBTbasal body temperature General
BCLSbasic cardiac life support cardiovascular
BEbelow elbow Directional
bed restConfinement of an patient to bed for therapeutic reasons. General
behaviorThe observable response of a man or animal to a situation. General
behaviorismA psychologic theory, developed by John Broadus Watson, concerned with studying and measuring behaviors that are observable. General
Bell's PalsyTemporary facial paralysis, 7th cranial nerve. Sudden onset. Usually one-side asymmetry.nervous
bellyThe central fleshy part of a muscle.General
beneficenceThe act of being kind, charitable, or beneficial. The ethical principle of beneficence requires that researchers should have the welfare of the research participant as a goal of any clinical trial.General
benignNonmalignant. A non-cancerous tumor.General
benzeneToxic flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation.General
benzocaineA local anesthetic applied topically.Nervous
beriberiA disorder caused by a deficiency of thiamine (vitamin B1) and characterized by heart failure and edema.Digestive
beta blockerDrugs that slow heart rate and reduce pumping force. Used to treat high blood pressure, angina, heart failure, migraines.Cardiovascular
betahistineA histamine analog that serves as a vasodilator. Used to reduce the frequency of attacks of vertigo in Meniere's disease.General
betamethasoneA glucocorticoid administered by mouth, injection, inhalation or topically to treat disorders in which corticosteroids are indicated.General
bezoarA mass of swallowed hair, fruit or vegetable fibers, or similar substances found in the alimentary canal. Digestive
bi-double, twice, twogeneral
bi/olifegeneral
biasSystematic deviation of results or inferences from the truth.General
bib.drink
bibli/obooksgeneral
bicepsA muscle having two heads. Commonly used to refer to the muscles that extend from the shoulder joint to the elbow.Muscular
biconcaveConcave on both sides, as in a lens design.Eyes and Ears
biconvexConvex on both sides, particularly in a lens design.Eyes and Ears
bicuspidA premolar tooth used for grinding food.Skeletal
bidetA bathroom fixture, similar to a toilet bowel, used for cleaning the genital and rectal areas.General
bil/ibile, galldigestive
bilatbilateralDirectional
bileAn emulsifying fluid produced in the liver, stored in the gall bladder and secreted into the duodenum.Digestive
biliaryPertaining to bile, the gall bladder or bile ducts.Digestive
bilirubinThe orange-yellow pigment of bile.Digestive
binauralRelating to the use of both ears.Eyes and Ears
binding sitesThe parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule. General
binocularRelating to the use of both eyes.Eyes and Ears
bioassayLaboratory determination of the potency of a drug or other substance by comparing its effects on living organisms with a standard preparation.General
biochemistryThe study of the composition, chemical structures, and chemical reactions of living things. General
bioethicsA branch of applied ethics that studies the value implications of practices and developments in life sciences, medicine, and health care. General
biofeedbackThe therapy technique of providing immediate status of one's own body functions such as skin temperature, heartbeat, brain waves) as visual or auditory feedback in order to self-control related conditions.General
biohazardBiological substances that pose a risk to the health of living organisms.General
biologyStudies concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms. General
bionicsThe science of mechanical and electrical systems that have characteristics of living systems.General
biophysicsThe study of physical phenomena and physical processes as applied to living things. General
biopsyRemoval and pathologic examination of small pieces of tissue from the living body. General
biostatisticsThe application of statistics to biological systems and organisms involving the retrieval or collection, analysis, reduction, and interpretation of qualitative and quantitative data. General
biotechnologyTechniques for applying biological processes to the production of materials for use in medicine, food production and industry.General
biotinA water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk. Digestive
bipolar disorderA major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence. Nervous
birthmarkA benign skin blemish present at birth.Integumentary
bisexualityAn individual who is sexually attracted to both sexes.Reproductive
BKbelow the knee Directional
black eyeA contusion around the eye with discoloration and swelling.General
blackheadA plug of fatty material in the outlet of the sebaceous gland in the skin. Comedo.Integumentary
blackwater feverA complication of malaria characterized by acute renal failure and the passage of dark red to black urine. General
bladderA hollow, expandable muscular sac that stores urine produced by the kidneys until excretion.Urinary
blast-bud, germgeneral
blastemaA mass of cells that is still growing and differentiating. General
blastocystThe embryonic form that follows the morula in human development.General
blastulaAn early non-mammalian embryo that follows the morula stage. A blastula resembles a hollow ball with the layer of cells surrounding a fluid-filled cavity.General
blenn-mucusgeneral
blephar/oeyelideyes and ears
blepharitisInflammation of the eyelids. Eyes and Ears
blepharoplastyCosmetic eyelid surgery. Also called eyelid lift.eyes and ears
blepharospasmSpasmodic winking caused by the involuntary contraction of an eyelid muscle.Eyes and Ears
blindnessThe inability to see.Eyes and Ears
blinkingBrief closing and reopening of the eyelids by involuntary or voluntary action. Eyes and Ears
blisterVisible accumulations of watery fluid within or beneath the epidermis. Integumentary
bloodThe body fluid that circulates in the vascular system. Whole blood in comprised of blood cells suspended in a liquid medium (plasma). Cardiovascular
blood banksCenters for collecting, characterizing and storing human blood. Cardiovascular
blood cellAny of the cells found in blood. This includes erythrocytes (red cells), leukocytes (white cells) and thrombocytes (platelets).Cardiovascular
blood clotA semisolid mass formed by blood coagulation. Thrombus.Cardiovascular
blood coagulationThe process of the interaction of blood coagulation factors that results in an insoluble fibrin clot. Cardiovascular
blood countThe number of red or white blood cells in a specified volume of blood.Cardiovascular
blood glucoseThe concentration of glucose in the blood. Also called blood sugar. Measured regularly in diabetes patients.Endocrine
blood groupClassification of blood based upon antigens on the surface of the red cell. Many blood grouping systems have been developed. The ABO system is one of the most important.Cardiovascular
blood plasmaThe liquid part of the blood, free of formed elements and particles.Cardiovascular
blood pressurePressure of the blood on the arteries, veins and chambers of the heart.Cardiovascular
blood sugarThe concentration of glucose in the blood. Measured regularly in diabetes patients.Endocrine
blood transfusionThe administration of whole blood or a blood component into the blood stream.Cardiovascular
blood urea nitrogenA measure of the concentration of urea in the bloodUrinary
blood vesselsAny of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins). Cardiovascular
BMbowel movement digestive
BMDbone mineral densityskeletal
BMIbody mass index digestive
BMRbasal metabolic rate general
BMTbone marrow transplantcardiovascular
body mass indexA formula for determining obesity based upon a person's weight and height.Digestive
boilA tender, inflamed area of skin that contains pus.Integumentary
bolpill
bolusA soft mass of chewed food ready to be swallowed.Digestive
bondingThe emotional attachment of mother-child or individuals to pets. Nervous
boneA dense, hard connective tissue that forms the framework of the skeleton.Skeletal
bone densityThe amount of mineral per square centimeter of bone. Bone density is an important predictor for osteoporosis. Skeletal
bone marrowThe soft, spongy tissue filling the cavities of bones. Its primary function is to produce erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets.Cardiovascular
borborygmusBelching.digestive
borderlineRelating to health status where the patient has some signs and symptoms of an abnormality but insufficient for a definite diagnosis.General
botulismA rare, but potentially fatal form of food poisoning caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum.Digestive
bougieA thin, cylindrical instrument, somewhat flexible, inserted into body canals in order to examine or dilate them.General
BPblood pressure cardiovascular
BPdblood pressure diastoliccardiovascular
BPHbenign prostatic hyperplasia reproductive
bpmbeats per minute cardiovascular
BPsblood pressure systoliccardiovascular
brachi/oarmskeletal
brachialRelating to the arm.Skeletal
brachial arteryThe continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries. Cardiovascular
brachy-shortgeneral
brachytherapyRadiotherapy that uses small sources that are placed on or near tumor tissues. General
brady-slowcardiovascular
bradycardiaCardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by abnormally slow heart rate, usually below 50 beats per minute in adults.Cardiovascular
bradykinesiaAbnormally slow body movement.muscular
bradypneaSlow breathing.Respiratory
brailleA system of printing for visually impaired people, consisting of raised dots that are read by touch.General
brainA highly developed part of central nervous system that is contained within the cranium. It consists of cerebrum, cerebellum and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous
breastA mammary gland of women.Reproductive
breast implantationSurgical insertion of a sac filled with silicone or other material to augment the female form cosmetically. General
breastfeedingFeeding a baby milk from the breast. Reproductive
breath soundsSounds heard over the lungs and airways, usually with a stethoscope.Respiratory
breathingThe repeating cycle of inhaling and exhaling air into and out of the lungs.Respiratory
bregmaThe juncture of the coronal and sagittal sutures on the top of the cranium.Skeletal
brom-bromine, stenchgeneral
bronch/obronchial tuberespiratory
bronchiThe two large air tubes of the lungs branching from the trachea. Secondary bronchi, called bronchioles, branch from bronchi.Respiratory
bronchi/obronchial tuberespiratory
bronchiectasisPersistent abnormal dilatation of the bronchi caused by chronic infection and inflammation.Respiratory
bronchitisInflammation of the large airways often caused by bacterial and viral infections and by cigarette smoke. Respiratory
bronchoconstrictionNarrowing of the lumen of the bronchi restricting airway into and out of the lungs. Respiratory
bronchodilatorSubstance that expands the bronchi and bronchioles, increasing airflow to the lungs. Respiratory
bronchopulmonaryPertaining to the bronchi and lungs.Respiratory
bronchorrheaAbnormal discharge of mucus from the bronchi.Respiratory
bronchoscopesEndoscopes for the visualization of the interior of the bronchi. Respiratory
bronchoscopyVisual examination and possibly treatment of the bronchi, throat, larynx and trachea using a fiber optical device.Respiratory
bronchospasmExcessive narrowing of the smooth muscles of the bronchi. Can be heard as a wheezing sound. Respiratory
bruiseA contusion.Integumentary
bruitA murmur heard while auscultating the carotid artery.Cardiovascular
bruxismA disorder characterized by grinding and clenching of the teeth. Skeletal
BSAbody surface area general
BSEbreast self-examination reproductive
bubonic plagueCaused by the bite of a rat flea that has previously bitten an infected rat. General
bucc/ocheekdigestive
buccalRelating to the mouth or inside of the cheek.General
bufferA chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer. General
-buliawillnervous
bulimiaEating an excess amount of food in a short period of time. It is caused by an abnormal craving for food.Digestive
Bulimia NervosaAn eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by inappropriate purging (e.g. vomiting or using laxatives) to avoid weight gain. digestive
bullaA fluid-filled blister with a diameter over 5 mm.integumentary
bullyingAggressive behavior intended to cause harm or distress. The behavior may be physical or verbal. There is typically an imbalance of power, strength, or status between the target and the aggressor. General
BUNblood urea nitrogen Urinary
bundle branch blockA type of heart block where the electrical signals to the ventricles are interrupted at the Bundle of HIS, preventing the simultaneous depolarization of the two ventricles. Cardiovascular
bundle of hisCells that conduct electrical impulses from the atrioventricular node to the ventricles.Cardiovascular
bunionAn area of thick tissue over the metatarsal phalangeal joint at the base of the great toe.Skeletal
bupropionAn antidepressant drug used as an aid to smoking cessation. General
burnTissue injury caused by heat, cold, chemicals, electricity, radiation and ultraviolet light.Integumentary
burs/obursa (fluid sac near joints)skeletal
bursitisInflammation of a bursa, the fibrous sac that acts as a cushion between moving structures of bones, muscles, tendons or skin. Skeletal
butterThe fatty part of milk, separated when milk or cream is churned. A soft, solid, yellowish substance.Digestive
buttocksEither of two fleshy protuberances at the lower posterior section of the trunk or hip consisting of gluteal muscles and fat. Muscular
butyr-butterGeneral
BWbody weight general
BWSbattered woman syndromegeneral
Bxbiopsy integumentary

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